their lungs when breathing. Most commonly, it is caused by inhaling irritants that lead to a chronic inflammation of the lungs and airways, which causes lung tissue and airways to break down. The arising scar tissue decreases the flexibility and elasticity of the lungs, thereby severely limiting the patient's available lung volume and breathing, and destroying the functional units of the lungs that are crucial for the oxygenation of the blood.
COPD is the third leading cause of death in U.S. following cancer and heart disease. Current hypothesis regarding mechanism of emphysema suggest that chronic exposure to cigarette smoke and particulate matter causes irritation in the alveoli and this triggers an inflammatory response. This response attracts a host of inflammatory cells like macrophages, neutrophils, and lymphocytes. Cytokines, reactive oxygen species, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, proteases mediate the progression of the disease. Of particular interest is emphysema in COPD patients. This results in poorly reversible airway obstruction due to the destruction of alveoli and elastin fibers in the lung. Loss of elastin in the lungs correlates to loss of lung function in patients.
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder (COPD)
Proof of principle of inhibiting inflammation in emphysema is published, using a combination antibody and naoparticle loaded with doxycycline.
COPD is a type of obstructive lung disorder characterized by poor airflow and pathological mechanisms that prevents patients from using the entire volume of
Currently available treatments for COPD aim at only providing temporary relief to the patients by mitigating inflammation or by the action of bronchodilators. Corticosteroids have been shown to have no anti-inflammatory effect in COPD patients. None of the available treatments has shown promising effect on treating the disease yet.
The global COPD market is estimated to be $11.3 billion, with projections of a value of $15.6 billion by 2019. The key players include GlaxoSmithKline, Novartis AG, Merck & Co., Abbott Laboratories, Boehringer Ingelheim, AstraZeneca, Roche Holding AG, Teva Pharmaceutical Industries, Vectura Group, and Pfizer Inc.